Repost of an Vans Men's SK8-Hi Reissue V US 10.5 M Green Suede & Nylon Sneakers Shoes $85.00 from 2009 by Charles S. Viar (Twitter: present chairman of the Center for Intelligence Studies in Washington D.C. (reposted here for layout reasons; in accordance with the copyright notice at the bottom of the essay):
Tommy Bahama Black Suede Shoes US Men's 10 Satisfaction Guaranteed Fast Shipping
Charles S. Viar
Although the origins of intelligence have been lost in the mists of time, the practice is at least as ancient as warfare. In what is perhaps the oldest written reference to an intelligence operation, The Book of Numbers recounts God’s command that Moses dispatch a reconnaissance team to scout the Israelite advance upon the Promised Land:
Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the Children of Israel. Of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, everyone a ruler among them…
Had the Canaanites possessed an effective counterintelligence capability, the story of the Israelite assault might have ended differently. For even a minimal foreknowledge of their intentions and capabilities would have made it possible for the Canaanites to organize a more effective defense. But as may be inferred from the Bible, they failed to detect the operation directed against them.Dr. Scholl's Work Harrington Oxford - Men's Size 10M, BlackECCO Wingtip Pebble Grain Leather Shoes / US 8-8.5 Extra Width
For that, they paid a fearsome price.
ASD10 New Black Gray Plaid Casual LOAFER DRIVING SLIP ON MOCCASIN Men Shoe Sz 7
Narrowly defined as “evaluated information,” intelligence is a dynamic process that involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data to national policymakers and other government officials of lesser rank. Intelligence serves to forewarn them of likely actions, events, and developments within their sphere of responsibility; and aids in matching available resources to threats and opportunities alike. As such, it is the sine qua non of effective statecraft.
More broadly, intelligence also serves as a force-multiplier. Much as Archimedes Lever makes it possible to magnify mechanical force transmitted across space, covert and clandestine intelligence operations make it possible for states to enhance the power they project beyond their frontiers.Men's Nordstrom-Size 7.5()-Light Brown Brushed Leather Casual Oxford/ShoeSperry Topsider Mens Shoes NEW $85 A/O 2 Eye Nautical Navy Blue Canvas Suede 9 M History is littered with examples of small and middling states exercising disproportionate influence through the deft application of secret intelligence.
Given the enormous – and occasionally decisive – advantages conferred by effective intelligence in the Great Game of Nations, well-governed states seek to maximize the effectiveness of their own intelligence services and to protect themselves against hostile services deployed against them.$110 LACOSTE MEN'S LIGHT 2.O DK GRAY/GRAY SNEAKER US 11MBJ222 Mens loafer genuine leather casual slip on loafer Moccasins driving shoes Domestic security typically provides one level of defense, and counterintelligence another.
Sketchers, men's hard toe work shoe, size 12
Although counterintelligence has been recognized as an integral component of state security since the Chinese military scholar Sun Tzu published The Art of War in the Fourth or Fifth century BC, the concept remains muddled. For almost two and a half millennia, the term itself has defied definition.
According to James Angleton, the legendary former Chief of CIA Counterintelligence, the term is ineffable. Although Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Operations generally concurred, he believed counterintelligence could nonetheless be described in terms of core functions. NEW Mens WOODLANDS - CLYDE Black Dress/FORMAL/CASUAL/WORK/SHOES CHEAPSperry Top Sider Mens Boat Shoe A/O 2-Eye Pullup TAN SIZE 14 MAngleton’s Deputy Chief for Analysis, however, disagreed with both. According to Raymond G. Rocca, counterintelligence is self-defined: it applies to any action undertaken to counter, i.e., negate, the efforts of hostile intelligence services.
Having studied under all three of the practitioners listed above, the writer of this paper eventually concluded Rocca’s understanding is more nearly correct; and has since argued that counterintelligence can be best illustrated by contrast. Where counterespionage – or security – seeks to neutralize individual spies and spy rings, counterintelligence attempts to neutralize hostile intelligence services as a whole.Gentlemen/Ladies Frye Mens Casual Shoes Size US8 Attractive and durable Trendy Modern and elegant
- Adidas F36583 Superstar FD Casual shoes white blue sneakers
- Men's Personality About Different Colors Hit The Color Of Mandarin Ducks Shoes
- New Balance 420 Lifestyle Men's Shoes Red/Navy Blue MRL420-SC
- Mens Driving Slip On Loafers Shoes Hairlist Dress Casual Moccasins pattern new
- Converse All Star Mens Size 9.5 Black Leather & Fleece Lined Shoes 119170
- Women Indoor Warm Cotton Slipper Winter Boots
- AR35 Coreene Cuffed Wedge Ankle Booties, Taupe
- Botte Pluie Neige femme Vernis Haut Matelassé fourrée Simili cuir Boucle Côté !
- Sam Edelman “Petty” Nearly New Brown Leather Ankle Zip Boots Womens Size 6.5 M
- Report 'Jael' Black Studded Vegan Leather Ankle Boot sz 9 M new
- Hot 2018 Men Spring Summer Slip On Real Suede Occident Runway embroidery Shoes
- VISVIM Gris Moc Hi-Folk Beige FIL Ex US9 (27cm) UWOB 2011 100% Authentic FBT ICT
- New Vans Era BMX Checkerboard Men Shoes Classic Canvas Sneakers VN0A38FRU8H1
- Crocs Meleen Twist Sandals - Black - Croslite
- DANSKO womens shoe Jette WHITE BOX /USA 11 NEW in box 7174010100
- 2013 NIKE AIR JORDAN PHASE 23 2 Mens Sz 13 Grey & Blue Sneakers 602671-013
- NEW Nike Men Blazer Navy Blue Leather Hi SP Mowax Build Destroy Futura US 5 ss1
- VTG 1994 Wolverine Worldwide Inc. Leather Boots Size 10-R 11014B ANSI 241.1 GUC
- ussr ссср сапоги кирзовые soviet army boots original (sole on nails)
- Man/Woman Propet Men's Ridge Walker Boot service special promotion Valuable boutique
- Caterpillar Mens Logger Leather Steel Toe Boots Size 10.5 Wide Oil Resistant
- Clarks Men's Desert Boots Sz US 12 M Navy Blue Fabric Chukka Ankle Shoes $140.00
- Christian Louboutin Pigalle Follies Black Patent Leopard Degrade Stiletto 37.5 Pumps Size US 7.5 Regular (M, B)
- Mens London Fog Boots (Greenwich) Cold Weather Walking-Hiker Boot Black 10M New
- NEW COLE HAAN MENS MEN'S ØRIGINALGRAND VENETIAN LOAFER - WOODBURY-JAVA
- Gentlemen/Ladies Pleaser Creeper-608 Mens Loafer- Choose SZ/Color. the most convenient Wholesale trade Simple
- Adidas Originals Centinia Girls Womens Polka Dot Fashion Trainers Hi tops 4 - 7
- Valentino Poudre Patent 37(Eu) Rockstud Punkouture Pumps Size US 7 Regular (M, B)
- Christian Louboutin Metallic Teal Simple 100 Nappa Laminato Pumps Size EU 36 (Approx. US 6) Regular (M, B)
- Nike Internationalist Utility Wolf Grey Gum Water-Resistant [857937 002] Sz 11.5
- $220 NIKE FLYKNIT MAX 620469-102 SZ US MENS US 11
- Adidas Eqt Support Adv W Womens CQ2251 GREONE,GREFIV,CHACOR Womens Size 8.5
- Nike Flyknit Racer Citrus Blue Lagoon Black SZ 7 / Womens 8.5 (526628-800)
- PUMA 19095902 Womens Ignite Flash Evoknit Satin En Pointe Wn Sneaker
- Womens Fur Lined Stilettos Pointy Toe Casual Knee High Boots High Heel Shoes
- Men's Nike Lunar Force 1 Duckboot '17 Bordeaux Shoes -Size 12 916682 601
- NEW Mens Sz 8.5 NIKE DUNK High AC 398263 801 DARK COPPER Sneakers Shoes
- Gentleman/Lady ADORE-1017SQF Rich design Make full use of materials Exquisite processing
- Man's/Woman's Jessica Simpson Women's Baiden Riding Boot main category Stylish and charming Most practical
- Rag & Bone Kerr Nubuck Boot Black Suede Ankle Booties Size 38 US
- Women's Shoes Pointy Toe Flats Geniune Leather Solid Elegant Slip On Shoes Cute
- Steve Madden Conncord Pewter Silver Flats Womens 7.5 Rhinestones Smoking Flats
- Chooka Women's Waterproof Ballet Flat Black 8 M US
- Women's Salvatore Ferragamo Size 7 Extra Narrow (4a) Brown Suede Oxfords Vintage
- NEW Christian Louboutin UN VOILIER Flats Peep Toe Taupe Beige LIZARD Shoes 40
- Diadora Women's Shoes Sneakers - 173954-D | Pink | Spring Summer 18
- NIKE FREE RN GS 36.5-40 NEW trainer rosheone rosherun kaishi juvenate 3.0 5.0
- Scarpa Neutron GTX Trail Running Shoe - Women's
- HOKA ONE ONE TOR ULTRA HI WP FOG GREEN/OLIVE HIKING WOMENS BOOTS SIZE US 9.5 NEW
- TAOS OLIVE GREEN LEATHER MAJESTY MARY JANE COMFORT LADIES WALKING STRAP SHOES~6
- men's shoes J BREITLIN 9 () elegant black leather AD14-D
- Mens hollow out shoes casual home slip-on loafers round toe soft sole shoes
- Red Tape Leather Edworth Mens Classic Formal Dress Mid Chukka Boot Black
- Klogs Dusty Unisex Clogs Black - 6 Medium
- Converse Jack Purcell Signature OX Leather White 151476C Size 11.5 NIB
- Ariat Heritage Western R ToeBlack Deertan Leather Women's Cowboy Boots 7.5
- Trotters BLAST III Womens Cognac Faux Leather Faux Fur Side Zip Ankle Heel Boots
- BA&SH Boots Compensées P.40 (chausse petit) Daim noir
- Womens Palladium Hi Peach Whip/Marshmallow Ankle Boots [92352-621]
- NOCONA $129 Competitor Leather Embroidered Western Boots Shoes Size 7B
- Gentlemen/Ladies Hush Puppies Men's Plane Oxford New varieties are launched Trendy Authentic guarantee
- Mephisto Men's Connor Black Leather Comfortable Oxford Shoe
- Summer Hermes Boots Saidogoa Leather Size 42 12 Shoes (98922
- Keen Mens Uneek 1018700 Dress Blue Skydiver Size 9
- Splendid Women's Renee II Ballet Flat - Choose SZ/Color
- Diadora GAME HOLOGRAM - White - Mens
- BRAND NEW ADIDAS DON'T MESS WITH TEXAS RED WHITE BLUE FOOTBALL SOCCER CLEATS 13
- Givenchy Yellow Paris Jaune Mink Fur Black Mule Slide Flop Flat Sandals Size EU 40 (Approx. US 10) Regular (M, B)
- Giuseppe Zanotti Black Suede Tall Gladiator Sandals Boots/Booties Size EU 39 (Approx. US 9) Regular (M, B)
- New Mens Flat Fishing Work Waterproof Rubber Over The Knee Boots Shoes Casual
- Wolverine BullDozer WO8167 Steel Toe Work Boots
- MEN'S KEEN MILWAUKEE WATERPROOF boots (STEEL TOE) STYLE size 15D
- Bill Montana black Leather Moto rocker boots 43 men size 10
- Deadstock 1980's Brown Leather Ankle Work Boots 8 D USA
- Salomon Contagrip CX Hiking Trail Moc Snow Clog Shoes Black Suede sz 9
- men's shoes TRIVER FLIGHT 7 () elegant blue suede BZ698-C
- Cole Haan 7757 Men's Henry Grand Short Wingtip British Tan Oxfords Sz 7 M
- Men's/Women's: Nike Air Adjust Force: reasonable price
Men's New Style Boost Sport Running Casual Shoe Gym Fitness Trainers 350
In a more perfect world, intelligence services would aspire to comprehensive coverage of their targets. But in actual practice, physical, organizational, political, and budgetary constraints have traditionally forced them to limit their collection activities to data pertaining to the targeted state’s organization, capabilities, and intentions. More recently, intelligence services have been tasked with gathering financial, economic, and technical data as well; and with the development of remote collection techniques, the amount of raw data collected by major intelligence services has become staggering in both scope and volume.
From a theoretical standpoint, intelligence collection and analysis should not be especially difficult. But given the fact that intelligence services routinely devote a substantial portion of their resources to deception operations designed to deceive their adversaries, Klogs Dusty Unisex Clogs Chestnut - 10 Narrowthe task is far more difficult than it first appears. Tables of organization and orders of battle can be faked, deployment patterns and readiness indicators manipulated, and communications traffic played for purpose. Indeed, almost any sort of intelligence data can be fabricated and fed to foreign intelligence services through sacrificial spies, dangles, false defectors, and dispatched agents.
This inherent vulnerability to hostile deception operations lays bare what Angleton formally referred to as the Epistemological Problem:Men's Shoes Madden M-Height Slip-On Loafers Casual Comfort White Canvas Size 11Klogs Dusty Unisex Clogs - Made In The Usa Enamel Blue - 5 Narrow.
Given the fact that foreign intelligence services routinely mount large and carefully crafted deception operations against us, how can we know what we believe to be true is actually so?
In less guarded moments, he called it “That damnable question.”
Ted Baker Men's Suede TBM 1182 Moccasins Size 13
As intelligence practitioners will attest, it is a damnable question indeed. Nonetheless, there are two solutions to the problem – one partial, the other complete.
The first solution is to look at intelligence data in terms of a jigsaw puzzle extending across time. HEELYS LAUNCH Roller SHOES Black Canvas Style HAfter fitting together as many of the pieces as possible, one may flag those that are known to be true beyond doubt. Subsequent pieces that fit with those may be presumed true, in the absence of contrary evidence.
Although this approach has considerable merit – including especially the way it facilitates intuitive judgments – the results it generates are both probabilistic and tentative. The likelihood that new data may significantly alter the pattern is high.
In contrast, the second solution can provide definitive answers – but only rarely, POLO RALPH LAUREN Charcoal Gray SUEDE LEATHER $110 HI TOP SNEAKERS BOOTS New 10when two relatively unlikely events occur simultaneously: 1) a high-level penetration agent confirms the validity of specific intelligence data, and 2) a code break “backstops” the veracity of the confirming agent. In the world of intelligence, certainty depends upon serendipity.
The recruitment of high-level penetration agents is rare, and code breaks are even more so. They occur together perhaps once a decade, and when they do intelligence analysts emerge from their garrets to enjoy a brief moment of clarity. But when the agent is lost or the codes are changed, they are condemned to wander once more through what Angleton termed “The Wilderness of Mirrors” – an Epistemological Hell from which neither truth nor falsehood may be surely obtained.
Skechers USA Men's Superior Milford Slip-On Loafer size 11
Determining the validity of intelligence data thus depends in part on recruiting from the enemy’s ranks senior political office holders or high-ranking government officials, and in part upon breaking their codes. But once affected, these unlikely circumstances open a window to other intriguing possibilities – including, Mens Kenneth Cole New York 8.5 Casual Shoes Black Buckle 8573 56930Klogs Boca Closed Back Unisex Comfort Clogs - Ma Bluebird - 6 Mediumspecifically, offensive counterintelligence operations designed to penetrate, infiltrate, and suborn the target’s intelligence service in order to play it back against the state it serves. The ultimate goal of such operations is to entice or provoke the targeted state into undertaking ruinous and self-destructive actions.Klogs Dusty Unisex Clogs - Made In The Usa Enamel Blue - 8 WideKlogs Boca Closed Back Unisex Comfort Clogs - Ma Bluebird - 7 Narrow
As Angleton observed, successful politicians and senior government officials are a remarkably homogenous lot. For the most part, they derive from roughly comparable social circumstances and share core formative experiences in common. Klogs Dusty Unisex Clogs - Made In The Usa Navy Blue - 7 WideRed Wing Worx Men's Gray Oil Slip Resistant Leather Shoes Mens 9 A012They attend the same schools – or at least the same types of schools – and are imbued with the same canon. They also hold remarkably similar beliefs and values, and share certain characteristic attitudes regarding the larger world. Together these form something akin to a collective psyche, or what Angleton termed the “Mind of the State.”
If states have minds, they also have states of mind – and as with individuals, it is their state of mind that makes them most vulnerable to deception. For a state of mind is a predisposition to belief or action; and if that predisposition can be accurately gauged,Klogs Dusty Unisex Clogs Navy Blue - 10 MediumSkechers Relaxed Fit Braver Rayland Leather Slip On Shoes, Men's Size 11.5 Brown tempting or provoking the targeted decision-makers to ruin becomes a plausible exercise in perception management.
Quality Men Canvas Shoes New Casual Shoes Lightweight Men Leisure Shoes Walk
If there is a single failing common to decision-makers throughout history, it is an excessive faith in intelligence. For reasons that remain obscure, decision-makers seem unable or unwilling to grasp the implications of the Epistemological Problem Angleton described. Despite ample warnings, they almost invariably place far more credence in intelligence reports than they deserve; and it is upon this most basic failing that offensive counterintelligence plays.
In The Art of War, Sun Tzu wrote “Supreme excellence is to subdue the enemy without fighting” Klogs Boca Closed Back Unisex Comfort Clogs - Mad Papaya - 11 Mediumand argued this end may best be achieved by manipulating the “Golden Threads” of intelligence – that is, the lines of communications that connect agents recruited from within the enemy’s camp to one’s own. The first Golden Thread may be activated by sacrificing deliberately misinformed low-level agents for capture, Klogs Boca Closed Back Unisex Comfort Clogs - Mahogany Buff - 7 Widedangling double agents for enemy recruitment, and dispatching false defectors to the enemy’s camp. The second is brought into play by querying the agent-in-place to determine how the enemy decision-makers have interpreted the false information they delivered. If the information evokes the intended state of mind, the false message can be reinforced by repeating the process in different ways. If not, it can be modulated until it does.
By these means offensive counterintelligence operations can create a false picture of reality in the minds of targeted decision-makers, much as an artist paints an image upon a sheet of canvass. Brush stroke by brush stroke, the attacking service can exploit the enemy intelligence service it suborned to systematically manipulate the Mind of the State.
mens Rock & Religion pumps trainers striped spotted denim shoes plimsolls canvas
The many critics of offensive counterintelligence argue that strategic deception operations of the size and scale suggested above are far too complex and complicated to be practical, as they are doomed to eventually collapse under their own weight. MEPHISTO GOOD YEAR WELT MENS BLACK GENUINE LEATHER MARLON OXFORDS ~ Sz US 10.5The criticism is true at least in part, but nonetheless disingenuous. Intelligence operations of any sort have a relatively short shelf life; and unless shut down by those who initiated them or uncovered by their intended targets, they will ALL eventually collapse for similar cause.
Perhaps more to the point, modern history is strewn with examples of successful strategic deceptions including the TRUST operation of the 1920’s, which saved the nascent Soviet state from ruin; the Soviet-sponsored WIN operation that forced the United States to abandon its post-war efforts to liberate Eastern Europe; and the Anglo-American deception operation that made possible the successful invasion of Normandy in 1944. All of these operations were conducted in the manner outlined above, and each inflicted massive damage upon the states they targeted.
Unfortunately, the United States abandoned its national counterintelligence capability in December of 1974 – and with it, the ability to mount large-scale strategic deception operations. Redefined and re-envisioned by successive administrations, Klogs Boca Closed Back Unisex Comfort Clogs - Made Papaya - 13 Widecounterintelligence had been reduced to little more than a security function until the Clinton Administration partially resurrected it after disastrous and overlapping penetrations of the CIA and the FBI were uncovered in the 1990’s. Expanded and reorganized in the aftermath of 9-11, a National Counterintelligence Executive now exists as a semi-autonomous supervisory agency. And yet despite the many long overdue reforms that have been undertaken since 2001, U.S. counterintelligence remains hobbled by an obtuse and legalistic definition, conceptual confusion,Klogs Springfield Closed Back Unisex Clogs Navy Blue - 8 Medium tangled jurisdictions, and – above all – by institutional timidity. For while offensive counterintelligence operations are now officially recognized, they remain tightly controlled and rarely sanctioned. They are tactical operations, most often mounted in reprisal.
Despite ample modern precedents, strategic deception operations of the sort advocated by Sun Tzu and refined by Angleton remain beyond the pale. This is unfortunate and – for those that seek to limit the suffering caused by armed conflict – deeply disconcerting.Chaps Bellmore Red Brown 11 Wide Memory Foam Style 96-37048Merrell Men's Terrant Strap Color: Dark Earth Size: 13M Item #: J91517 NWB!
For in the Great Game of Nations, offensive counterintelligence remains the only plausible means for achieving victory without war. For if only in theory, it is the primary offensive instrument of state.
Published by the Center for Intelligence Studies.Chrome Mens Truk Box Canvas Brick/Black Sneaker M's7.5 / W's9Klogs Boca Closed Back Unisex Clogs Navy Blue - 7 Wide
1016 K Street NE. Washington, DC. 20002
202 / 399-0292
Copyright 2009. This paper may be reproduced in part or in whole for civic or educational purposes, provided that context is preserved and full attribution is given