Repost of an Ariat Womens Round Up Remuda Cowboy Boot Naturally Dark Brown Full Grain Leather from 2009 by Charles S. Viar (Twitter: present chairman of the Center for Intelligence Studies in Washington D.C. (reposted here for layout reasons; in accordance with the copyright notice at the bottom of the essay):
AUTHENTIC PRADA HAWAII SNEAKERS SHOES 3E5838 BLACK NEW US 6
Charles S. Viar
Although the origins of intelligence have been lost in the mists of time, the practice is at least as ancient as warfare. In what is perhaps the oldest written reference to an intelligence operation, The Book of Numbers recounts God’s command that Moses dispatch a reconnaissance team to scout the Israelite advance upon the Promised Land:
Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the Children of Israel. Of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, everyone a ruler among them…
Had the Canaanites possessed an effective counterintelligence capability, the story of the Israelite assault might have ended differently. For even a minimal foreknowledge of their intentions and capabilities would have made it possible for the Canaanites to organize a more effective defense. But as may be inferred from the Bible, they failed to detect the operation directed against them.Korkers Women's Verglas Ridge Boot with SnowTrac & IceTrac Soles Black/GreySaucony Women's Freedom ISO 2 Running Shoe Grey/Peach Running Sneakers
For that, they paid a fearsome price.
vt18819 Golden Goose Deluxe Brand woman's blue sneakers
Narrowly defined as “evaluated information,” intelligence is a dynamic process that involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data to national policymakers and other government officials of lesser rank. Intelligence serves to forewarn them of likely actions, events, and developments within their sphere of responsibility; and aids in matching available resources to threats and opportunities alike. As such, it is the sine qua non of effective statecraft.
More broadly, intelligence also serves as a force-multiplier. Much as Archimedes Lever makes it possible to magnify mechanical force transmitted across space, covert and clandestine intelligence operations make it possible for states to enhance the power they project beyond their frontiers.NIKE AIR MAX 97 ULTRA SE NRG CASUAL WOMEN's BLACK - RED AUTHENTIC NEW IN BOX SZSAS Women's Walk Easy Sneaker Black Walking Shoes History is littered with examples of small and middling states exercising disproportionate influence through the deft application of secret intelligence.
Given the enormous – and occasionally decisive – advantages conferred by effective intelligence in the Great Game of Nations, well-governed states seek to maximize the effectiveness of their own intelligence services and to protect themselves against hostile services deployed against them.NEW! Zcoil Cruiser Women's Sz 8 in Original Box Slip Resistant Z-Flex OutsoleBaskets cuir noir et argent KENZO - T39 Domestic security typically provides one level of defense, and counterintelligence another.
vt18969 Golden Goose Deluxe Brand woman's fancy sneakers
Although counterintelligence has been recognized as an integral component of state security since the Chinese military scholar Sun Tzu published The Art of War in the Fourth or Fifth century BC, the concept remains muddled. For almost two and a half millennia, the term itself has defied definition.
According to James Angleton, the legendary former Chief of CIA Counterintelligence, the term is ineffable. Although Angleton’s Deputy Chief for Operations generally concurred, he believed counterintelligence could nonetheless be described in terms of core functions. Jil Sander Navy Women's Rosen Sneaker Silver Calfskin/Mesh/Tweed SneakersDrew Women's Metro Zip On Wedge Black Microdot Leather ZipperAngleton’s Deputy Chief for Analysis, however, disagreed with both. According to Raymond G. Rocca, counterintelligence is self-defined: it applies to any action undertaken to counter, i.e., negate, the efforts of hostile intelligence services.
Having studied under all three of the practitioners listed above, the writer of this paper eventually concluded Rocca’s understanding is more nearly correct; and has since argued that counterintelligence can be best illustrated by contrast. Where counterespionage – or security – seeks to neutralize individual spies and spy rings, counterintelligence attempts to neutralize hostile intelligence services as a whole.New AUTHENTIC Nike Air VaporMax Flyknit 849557 202 Sunset Glow Taupe Women size
- Tory Burch Brown 32148367 Boots/Booties Size US 7 Regular (M, B)
- Valentino Beige Rockstud Rolling Heels Pumps Size US 9 Regular (M, B)
- Christian Louboutin Black Classic Simple 100mm Nappa Shiny Leather Round-toe Pumps Size EU 41 (Approx. US 11) Regular (M, B)
- NIKE MENS AIR ZOOM VOMERO 11 RUNNING SHOES (NO BOX)
- NIKE Men's Lunarstelos Running Shoe Black/Metallic Silver/Anthracite MSRP $85
- Adidas NMD_R1 STLT Primeknit Womens CQ2028 Ash Pink Boost Running Shoes Size 10
- Nike AF1 Air Force Upstep LX Floral Sequin Binary Blue Womens 8.5 [898421-401]
- American Rag Womens BAYLIE Closed Toe Ankle Platform Boots, Chestnut, Size 9.5 I
- NEW BALANCE MEN'S ATHLETIC SNEAKERS MESH RUNNING SHOES M680LG4 GRAY / RED NEW
- Nike Zoom Celar 5 Running Track Spikes Hyper Violet Blue 629226-514 Size 10
- Stanley Mens Work & Safety Boots Size 8.5 (2740)
- NEW Mens Leather Zip Knee High Riding Military Long Boots Punk Shoes BIKER BOOTS
- Ridge Footwear Men's Dura-Max 8" Suede Leather Coyote Tactical Boots 3208
- Cowboy Western Boots by Avirex ~ Made in USA ~ Size 9D
- Tony Lama Tan Cowhide Leather Vintage Boots Late 80's Style 6212 Men's 10.5D
- Caterpillar CRITERION Oxford Mens Work Casual Leather Nubuck Shoes Sneakers
- Academie Gear Men's James Brown Nubuck Oil Plain Toe Shoes
- Hugo Boss Men's Shuttle Low-Top Trainers Sneakers Shoes
- Men's/Women's：Adidas Tucana Packaway Women Trainers in Blue D66475 [/3]：Cheap Prices
- New Womens Stretch Knee High Riding Boots Comfort Pull On Hidden Heel Shoes Size
- Nike SB Janoski Max in Sequoia Green/Gold - 631303-389
- Men's Nike Air Max 90 Running Shoes Black/Black Sizes 8-11 New In Box 302519-001
- Womens Suede Fur Lining Ankle Boots Zip Flat Winter Snow High Top Shoes Casual s
- PAJAR Boots Adelina Waterproof Insulated Leather White Grey Snow Boot 11 42 EU
- Womens Turquoise Cowboy Boots Casual Cowgirl Western Rodeo Overlay Leather Snip
- New Women Patent Leather Flat Shoes Slip On Loafers Pointed Toe Oxfords OL Shoes
- Womens Dr. Martens SOHO Black Canvas Size US 6 TT24
- $155 Dansko Womens Celeste Waterproof Slip on Shoes Black Nubuck 37 / 6.5 - 7
- Belle by Sigerson Morrison Nudie Espadrilles, Multicolor, Size 7.5 B
- Salvatore Ferragamo Enea Black Ballet Flat Nero Matte Glitter Size 10.5 M
- NIB WOMENS PUMA X FENTY HI TRAINER JET BLACK RIHANNA FASHION SNEAKER SHOES
- Merrell Women's Encore Q2 Ice Fashion Sneaker, Merrell Stone, 8 M US
- DIADORA HERITAGE WOMEN'S SHOES LEATHER TRAINERS SNEAKERS NEW CAMARO H BLACK 6DE
- Ralph Lauren Polo Sport Mules- Slide Brown Mesh Panel Leather Shoes Women's 6.5B
- Women's Merrell J15822 Fullbench Composite Toe Safety Work Shoes (Sz:7M)
- Alexander McQueen men's loafers shoes in black Calf leather Size US 7 -
- Shoes For Crews Sz.12 White. 28549W. EXC.Con.
- Mens Hollow Out Close Toe Driving Flats Sports Sandals Beach Slippers Shoes Size
- Huk Men's Brewster Size 10 Navy Denim Casual Shoe
- men's shoes 2 STAR 9 () sneakers blue ice suede patent leather AE613-C
- NEW Women's Shoes Knee High Riding Boots Slouch Cowboy Military Motorcycle Flat
- Reneeze PAMA-01 Stacked Chunky Heels Ankle Bootie - Women's Size 7 Brown
- New Women Nature Breeze Echo-02 Leatherette Shearling Folded Cuff Combat Bootie
- Madden Girl Women's Finian Ankle Boot, Dark Grey, Size 10.0
- Diba Womens Pilot Almond Toe Ankle Fashion Boots Black Size 8.5
- BED STU ROAN BLACK LEATHER WINGTIP OXFORDS SIZE US 10.5 BENCH MADE IN MEXICO
- Skechers USA Mens Noven Mesen Oxford- Select SZ/Color.
- Hush Puppies Men's GT Black Leather Slip-On Loafer
- Roman Style Woven Hollow Out Slingback Casual Mens Beach Sandals Summer Shoes sz
- Kanna Black Platform Loafers Creepers Glitter Fur Platform Oxfords Fringe 39 9
- Nike Zoom Victory Elite Spikes Running Shoes Sz 8 US White Black
- Skono Norway Men's size 9 White high top
- JB Goodhue 8'' Dynamic TPU STSP Men's Tan Work Boot 11M
- Bates E01801 Mens Delta 8 Desert Military Boot 11M Tan Jungle Combat
- Gentlemen/Ladies Skechers Men's Mariner Utility Boot the most convenient Known for its good quality Strong heat and heat resistance
- Christian Louboutin Nude Platine Gold Nu Biblio 85mm Suede Cut Out Pointed Heels A962 Pumps Size EU 37.5 (Approx. US 7.5) Regular (M, B)
- Christian Louboutin Blue Follies Spikes 100 Denim Lame Lux Silver Spike Pigalle Heel Pumps Size EU 35.5 (Approx. US 5.5) Regular (M, B)
- bebe White Nicole Crystal Embellished Mules
- Hi Tec Mojave Boots Mens Hiking Shoes
- Mens Pull On Casual Ankle Boots Shoes Desert Chelsea Boot British stylish Hot S
- Stacy Adams Men's Lindon slip-on driver Navy Shoes 24910-410
- Fashion Men Punk Stripe Metal Heads Pointy Toe Party Dress Shoes Leather Loafers
- Nike Air Presto Fly men lifestyle sneakers NEW dark stucco black 908019-011
- Men's Adidas Adidas Athletics 24-7 TR - Black - Width: med - Cross Training
- Nike Womens Dart 12 Running Trainers 831535 004 Sneakers Shoes
- Nike Alpha Lunar Clipper Blue Turf Mens Baseball Shoes (880262-414) Size 16 NEW
- Adidas NMD_R2 W [BY8691] Women Casual Shoes White/Grey
- Nike Air Max Plus TN GS Running Shoes Barely Rose Youth Size 3.5Y Womens 5
- Womens Ankle Boots Pull On Patent Leather Retro Pointed Toe Mid Heel Block Shoes
- Autumn New Womens Round Toe Knight Boots PU Rivet Block High Heel Shoes lit01
- Scarpe NIKE Uomo GIALLO AO9467-710
- Nike Air Jordan Retro VII 7 MARVIN THE MARTIAN Men Size 10 Pre-owned
- Women Blac Over The Knee Boots Rivet ZiP Wedge Heel Shoes Casual Shoes New Y518
- Viking Footwear Mariner Kadett Waterproof Slip-Resistant Boot
- Ariat Women's Heritage Western R Toe Cowboy Boot - Choose SZ/Color
- Clarks Collection Soft Cushion Flats w/ Bow 8 M Bronze Metallic and Black EUC
- Minnetonka Thunderbird II - Caramel Deerskin Beaded Moccasin
- 2018 Women Korean Pointy Toe Loafers Leopard Print Flat Casual Slip On Shoes
- CLARKS Women's Gracelin Jonas Loafer Flat Black Suede 100 M US
- Men's/Women's Tory Burch ballet flats. Size 10 feature a good reputation in the world a wide variety of goods
- Adidas Women's Alpha Bounce EM BW0325 Running Shoes Marathon Training Shoe
- ASICS GEL-Kenun Women's Vanilla Cream/Vanilla Cream/Eggplant 7C90202
- New Balance X90 Artic Sky/Himalayan Pink Textile / WSX90CLG
- Reebok Floatride Run Flexweave Skull Grey Black White Women Running Shoes CN6164
- $300+ Finn Comfort Women Soho Black Metallic Fashion Sneaker Leather 38 7 7.5
- Hugo Boss Men's Dressapp Embossed Leather Loafers Shoes
- Men's FARANZI black denim driving moccasins slip on loafers shoes style F4847
- Mens Patent Leather Brogue Ankle Boots British Shoes Rivet Studded high top hot
- Black Monster Energy Style Men's Low Top Shoes
- ONEMIX Mens Air Cushion Outdoor Sport Running Shoes Lightweight Casual Sneakers
- MADDEN GIRL SIDED ZIPPER BOOTS GAMER 5.5 PRE-OWNED
- Via Pinky Collection Ranger Taiga Biker Front Zip Boots Gold Metal US 8.5
- Kamik Baltimore Womens Insulated Waterproof Snow Boots Brown 6 NIB
- Women’s Brown Leather Tall Boots Sz 9. Lauren Conrad. FREE SHIPPING!!!
- $215 NWB Joe's Jeans February Chocolate Ankle Boots Women's 7 Medium
- Vogue British Men Genuine Leather Brogue Carved Slip On Dress Casual Party Shoes
- PRADA America’s Cup Solid Black Leather Mesh Mens Shoes Sneakers - 8
- New $695 Ermenegildo Zegna Extra light Shoes NAT SLD 10.5 US ( 43.5 Eu ) Italy
- Chaco Flip EcoTread Flip-Flops - Recycled Materials King Forest RTL $65
- INC International Concepts Womens Zadde Pointed Toe Ankle Wrap Slide Flats
- Asics Split Second Men's Wrestling Shoes size 10 1/2 Black White J203Y
- Nike Air Jordan Ultra Fly 2 Low Basketball Shoe White Black AH8110-100 Men's NEW
- Royer Men's 8" Metal-Free Lightweight Leather Work Boot 5707AG Black Size 9.5 3E
- Irish Setter Mens 83905-M Brown Work & Safety Boots Size 10 (2E) (353412)
- US Size 5-11 Trendy Leather Mens Footwear Military Ankle Boots Fashion Shoes sz
- Antonio Hdez. Black Leather Chelsea Western Cowboy Boots Mens Size 10.5 - B730
- Men's Brown Leather Johnny Carter Vaquero Square Toe Boots sz Mex27/US8
- NICE COLLECTIVE Vintage Black Leather CARBON COMBAT Military Jump Boots Men 10
- Skechers Men's Relaxed Fit Equalizer 3.0 Tracterric Sneaker Taupe Slip-on Shoes
- HAIX Airpower P3 Black Leather Boots Police Service Size 13.5 Wide NEW
- Green Suede Florida Pumps Size EU 38 (Approx. US 8) Regular (M, B)
- Vince Camuto Wedge Boots/Booties Size US 6 Regular (M, B)
- Jessica Simpson Nude Evannan Platforms Size US 8.5 Regular (M, B)
- NIKE ROSHE TIEMPO VI FC SZ 12 ROSHERUN BLACK TEAM RED GOLD RUN 852613 001
- NIKE LAB MAYFLY WOVEN 833132-600 TERRA RED DARK BASE GREY SUMMIT WHITE SZ: 8
- adidas Swift Run W Footwear White Women Running Shoes Sneakers CQ2021：Gentlemen/Ladies：excellent finishing
- WMNS NIKE AIR MAX SEQUENT 3 BORDEAUX RUNNING SHOES WOMEN'S SELECT YOUR SIZE
- New Men Indoor Slippers Soft Winter Warm Non Slip Home Fur Plush Floor Slippers
- Vintage WOMEN'S LARAMIE HANDMADE Tall Antelope Cowboy Western Boots size 5 B
- New NIKE ZOOM PHENOM 2008 Basketball Shoes Brandon Roy Rudy Gay Model
- Nike Zoom Winflo 5 Mens AA7406-002 Black Anthracite Mesh Running Shoes Size 10.5
- Blondo Women's Venise WS Riding Waterproof Boot, Black, 5.5 M US
- Demonia Women's Crypto-302 Knee Boot Brown 11
- adidas originals Zx Flux Men’s Trainers Size
- Lanvin Black White Houndtooth Knit Pointed Toe Ankle Booties Size 39.5 9.5
- Mushroom women's slip on leatherquilted black loafers shoes size 9W
- Naturalizer Womens blair Leather Pointed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots
- Men/Women Lucky Brand Women's Embany Ballet Flat Special price a wide range of products At an affordable price
- Fulinken 4 Color Sz 5-10 Real Leather Wingtip Oxfords Casual Dress Womens Shoes
- Gentlemen/Ladies Céline Navy Blue Velvet Platform Loafers Quality queen Orders are welcome Current shape
- Bearpaw Women's Krystal Pull On Boot Hickory II Suede Winter Boots
- The North Face Women's Hedgehog Fastpack Gore-Tex Size 8
- Bernie Mev Women's Gummies Charm Walking Shoe
- Gentlemen/Ladies Prada Nylon-Strap Leather Sneakers Queensland stable quality Exquisite processing
- Women's Abeo Avery Black Slip On Shoes W/ 3D3 Insoles 412 W7P Sz 7
- BRAND NEW Beloved MENS HIGH TOPS SHOES CHICKEN RAMEN US 8-14 CUSTOM MADE EDM
- MEPHISTO AIR-RELAX Mens Brown Distressed Leather Oxfords Dress Casual Shoes 9.5
- Men Driving Casual Boat Shoes Leather Shoes Moccasin Slip On Loafers Cool Sbox14
- Marc Jacobs Nappa (Italian Calf Leather) High-Top Sneaker (11 US) Reg $425
- Ecco Windsor Brown Leather Loafer Men's Size US 9 Slip-On Shoe Casual
- Isaac Mizrahi Live Stacy Leather Ankle Boots w/Strap Womens 6 W
- Womens ENZO ANGIOLINI Black Leather Mid-calf Boots 2.5" Heel, Zipper 6M - Nice!
- CLARKS ARTISAN Black Leather Wing Tip Heeled Shoes 6 1/2 M Euro 37 M Bottie Monk
- Anne Klein Womens Chelsey Leather Almond Toe Ankle, Dark Cognac, Size 6.0
- Women's Cole Haan Kennedy Sz 7.5B Winter Fall Boot Brown Leather Gray Flannel D1
- DS NIKE 2011 AIR TRAINER SC II DARK GREY RETRO 9.5 FORCE TRAINER I SUPER BOWL
- Born Mens WILKINS Fabric Low Top Bungee Fashion Black/BLACK COMBO Size 9.0
- $225 size 11.5 Hugo Boss Hulof Black Leather Loafers Mens Dress Shoes
- Hot Mens Faux Leather Hollow Out Stylish Round Toe Sandals Fishmen Shoes Size
- Womens Leather Ballet Flats Ribbon Accent Violet Color US7.5 EU37.5 24.5cm
- Sanuk Lil Donny Funk - Boy's Casua Indigo Waves - 11 M US Little Kid
- Nike Zoom Speed TR Training Mens Running Shoes Size 11 804401-007
- SKECHERS size 5½ brown hiking boots 5.5 shoes utility footwear construction
- Man/Woman Men's Rasta Martin Boots RLW2152 service Online export store International big name
- Women's Natural Soul / Carma (Black Color) 8 Inch High Zip Up Boots Sz 9.5M
- Fendi Black White Pink Karlito Women's Slip Ons Sneakers Size EU 40.5 (Approx. US 10.5) Regular (M, B)
- Valentino Red Rockstud Leather Sandals Size EU 39.5 (Approx. US 9.5) Regular (M, B)
- Jimmy Choo Metallic Gold Lamè Glitter Fabric Mamey Crystal Embellished Toe Size42 Pumps Size EU 42 (Approx. US 12) Narrow (Aa, N)
- Nike Free RN Distance Ble,Gry,Org,Purpl 827115 014/003/005/402/700/800 Sz 9 - 13
- Nike Men's Zoom Rival S 8 Running Spike Shoes Track & Field Racer Blue
- NEW Adidas Boost W- W.W - AF5779 - Size 9
- Wmns Nike AF1 Air Force 1 Upstep LX 898421 402 Size 8
- New Naturalizer Womens Brown Fashion Boots Size 7.5 (A, N)
- Fashion Womens Hidden Heel Side Zip Mid Calf Boots Pull on Fur Lining Warm Shoes
- Nike Air Max 1 Premium Gradient Toe Pack Obsidian Green Blue 875844-402
- nike roshe run fb yeezy
- Rockport Mens M78632 BlackIi Hiking Boots Size 9.5 (E, W) (422027)
- Vintage Mens Pointed Toe Leather Casual Chelsea Ankle Boots Formal Shoes Ths01
- TEVA ARROWOOD LUX MID WATERPROOF HIKER BOOTS BROWN SIZE 9 MENS US
- Testosterone "Proud Lee" Tassel Loafer, Men's Casual Slip-on Summer Shoes, Blue
- ECCO Men's Ian Casual Tie Oxfordblack45 EU/11-11.5 M US
- Adidas NMD mens 12 Tan Beige
- Cole Haan Women's Designer Black Leather Ankle Boot - 8.5B - NIB - PRICE DROP!!!
- MANOLO BLAHNIK COURRI ROTONDA BROWN LEATHER BOOTS SZ 36 / 6 M REAR ZIP MID CALF
- Easy Spirit Karce Ballet Flats Black Studs Size 11 Wide e360
- Lake Blue Qing Dynasty Flower Pot Shoes Opera Embroidered Gege Shoes Flat Ske15
- Vaneli Scarlet Round Toe Suede Ballet Flats Size US 6.5M Taupe M72
- Man's/Woman's KICKERS Oxford Black Practical and economical Impeccable At an affordable price
- BC Born in California Taupe Vegan Oxford Loafer Sz 11
- Men's/Women's Ted Baker Women's Immet Ballet Shoe Queensland Win the praise of customers Characteristics
- New Cole Haan Jennica Slip-On II Sneakers women's sz 7.5
- Royal Elastics London Hi 1804 Urban Canvas Beige Pink Women Shoes 93482-101
- Women's Nike Air Max 97 Ultra '17 SI Shoes -Size 7 -AO2326 600
- Drew Woman’s Hobby Shoes Sand Canvas Size 9.5 Wide 13260-88
- Ryka Size 7 Trek Band Grey Suede Clogs Slip-On Sneakers Shoes $65 NEW
- NWOB ERMENEGILDO ZEGNA COUTURE XXX Black Leather Tassel Loafer Shoes - 9
- Balenciaga Triple Snoirmade In Italy Processing Sneakers 39Blk Shoes (22897
- Tommy Hilfiger Mens Payton Sneaker- Pick SZ/Color.
- Mens Loafers Driving Shoes leather Slip-on Leather Casual driving shoes new
- Nike Dunk Low 11.5 New with Box
Dolce & Gabbana Women's Shoes Pumps | Apricot | Fall Winter 18/19
In a more perfect world, intelligence services would aspire to comprehensive coverage of their targets. But in actual practice, physical, organizational, political, and budgetary constraints have traditionally forced them to limit their collection activities to data pertaining to the targeted state’s organization, capabilities, and intentions. More recently, intelligence services have been tasked with gathering financial, economic, and technical data as well; and with the development of remote collection techniques, the amount of raw data collected by major intelligence services has become staggering in both scope and volume.
From a theoretical standpoint, intelligence collection and analysis should not be especially difficult. But given the fact that intelligence services routinely devote a substantial portion of their resources to deception operations designed to deceive their adversaries, 1808 Nike Air Max 270 Futura Women's Training Running Shoes AJ7290-200the task is far more difficult than it first appears. Tables of organization and orders of battle can be faked, deployment patterns and readiness indicators manipulated, and communications traffic played for purpose. Indeed, almost any sort of intelligence data can be fabricated and fed to foreign intelligence services through sacrificial spies, dangles, false defectors, and dispatched agents.
This inherent vulnerability to hostile deception operations lays bare what Angleton formally referred to as the Epistemological Problem:Women's Mizuno Wave Prophecy 4 Running Shoes White/Black/Deep Lavender US 6.5ANYA HINDMARCH Leather All Over Sticker Skater sneaker sz. 38 very good cond..
Given the fact that foreign intelligence services routinely mount large and carefully crafted deception operations against us, how can we know what we believe to be true is actually so?
In less guarded moments, he called it “That damnable question.”
Finn Comfort Women's Ikebukuro Espresso Corten/Jasmine Okapi
As intelligence practitioners will attest, it is a damnable question indeed. Nonetheless, there are two solutions to the problem – one partial, the other complete.
The first solution is to look at intelligence data in terms of a jigsaw puzzle extending across time. $950 DSQUARED2 8.5/38.5 High Top Gold Chain Lock Denim Fashion Sneakers ITALYAfter fitting together as many of the pieces as possible, one may flag those that are known to be true beyond doubt. Subsequent pieces that fit with those may be presumed true, in the absence of contrary evidence.
Although this approach has considerable merit – including especially the way it facilitates intuitive judgments – the results it generates are both probabilistic and tentative. The likelihood that new data may significantly alter the pattern is high.
In contrast, the second solution can provide definitive answers – but only rarely, NEW $575 Golden Goose Superstar Metallic Silver Glitter Leather Sneakers Womenwhen two relatively unlikely events occur simultaneously: 1) a high-level penetration agent confirms the validity of specific intelligence data, and 2) a code break “backstops” the veracity of the confirming agent. In the world of intelligence, certainty depends upon serendipity.
The recruitment of high-level penetration agents is rare, and code breaks are even more so. They occur together perhaps once a decade, and when they do intelligence analysts emerge from their garrets to enjoy a brief moment of clarity. But when the agent is lost or the codes are changed, they are condemned to wander once more through what Angleton termed “The Wilderness of Mirrors” – an Epistemological Hell from which neither truth nor falsehood may be surely obtained.
Mr/Ms Celine Shoes 37Blk Leather (28630 Clever and practical auction Sales online store
Determining the validity of intelligence data thus depends in part on recruiting from the enemy’s ranks senior political office holders or high-ranking government officials, and in part upon breaking their codes. But once affected, these unlikely circumstances open a window to other intriguing possibilities – including, $750 DSQUARED2 9/39 Platinum High Top Flower Glitter Couture Sneakers ITALY1808 Nike Air Max 1 Lux Women's Sneakers Sports Shoes 917691-100specifically, offensive counterintelligence operations designed to penetrate, infiltrate, and suborn the target’s intelligence service in order to play it back against the state it serves. The ultimate goal of such operations is to entice or provoke the targeted state into undertaking ruinous and self-destructive actions.AUTHENTIC NIKE AIR VAPORMAX FLYKNIT 2 Wht Hydro Blue Pink 942843 102 Women sizeNIKE AIR MAX 270 WOMEN's CASUAL GUAVA ICE - TERRA BLUSH - RACER PINK NEW IN BOX
As Angleton observed, successful politicians and senior government officials are a remarkably homogenous lot. For the most part, they derive from roughly comparable social circumstances and share core formative experiences in common. 1808 Nike AIR MAX 270 Women's Training Running Shoes AH6789-006Ash Women's Bowie Fashion Sneaker - Choose SZ/ColorThey attend the same schools – or at least the same types of schools – and are imbued with the same canon. They also hold remarkably similar beliefs and values, and share certain characteristic attitudes regarding the larger world. Together these form something akin to a collective psyche, or what Angleton termed the “Mind of the State.”
If states have minds, they also have states of mind – and as with individuals, it is their state of mind that makes them most vulnerable to deception. For a state of mind is a predisposition to belief or action; and if that predisposition can be accurately gauged,Golden Goose Deluxe Brand Hanami 37 Women’s SneakersAdidas Nmd_xr1 Pk Womens Style : Bb2370 Black/Black/White Womens Size 9 tempting or provoking the targeted decision-makers to ruin becomes a plausible exercise in perception management.
PRADA AMAZING LIPS FUN WHITE RED PINK SEXY SLIP ON SNEAKERS I LOVE SHOES
If there is a single failing common to decision-makers throughout history, it is an excessive faith in intelligence. For reasons that remain obscure, decision-makers seem unable or unwilling to grasp the implications of the Epistemological Problem Angleton described. Despite ample warnings, they almost invariably place far more credence in intelligence reports than they deserve; and it is upon this most basic failing that offensive counterintelligence plays.
In The Art of War, Sun Tzu wrote “Supreme excellence is to subdue the enemy without fighting” NIKE AIR MAX 270 WOMEN's CASUAL BORDEAUX - VINTAGE WINE - SUMMIT WHT AUTHENTICand argued this end may best be achieved by manipulating the “Golden Threads” of intelligence – that is, the lines of communications that connect agents recruited from within the enemy’s camp to one’s own. The first Golden Thread may be activated by sacrificing deliberately misinformed low-level agents for capture, NIKE Womens Nike Zoom Fly 897821-411 EQUATOR BLUE Size 7.5dangling double agents for enemy recruitment, and dispatching false defectors to the enemy’s camp. The second is brought into play by querying the agent-in-place to determine how the enemy decision-makers have interpreted the false information they delivered. If the information evokes the intended state of mind, the false message can be reinforced by repeating the process in different ways. If not, it can be modulated until it does.
By these means offensive counterintelligence operations can create a false picture of reality in the minds of targeted decision-makers, much as an artist paints an image upon a sheet of canvass. Brush stroke by brush stroke, the attacking service can exploit the enemy intelligence service it suborned to systematically manipulate the Mind of the State.
NEW GIUSEPPE ZANOTTI OUTSEASON WOMENS BUSTER RUNNER
The many critics of offensive counterintelligence argue that strategic deception operations of the size and scale suggested above are far too complex and complicated to be practical, as they are doomed to eventually collapse under their own weight. Adidas Nmd_r2 Pk W Womens BY9954 White,White,SHOPIN Womens Size 6The criticism is true at least in part, but nonetheless disingenuous. Intelligence operations of any sort have a relatively short shelf life; and unless shut down by those who initiated them or uncovered by their intended targets, they will ALL eventually collapse for similar cause.
Perhaps more to the point, modern history is strewn with examples of successful strategic deceptions including the TRUST operation of the 1920’s, which saved the nascent Soviet state from ruin; the Soviet-sponsored WIN operation that forced the United States to abandon its post-war efforts to liberate Eastern Europe; and the Anglo-American deception operation that made possible the successful invasion of Normandy in 1944. All of these operations were conducted in the manner outlined above, and each inflicted massive damage upon the states they targeted.
Unfortunately, the United States abandoned its national counterintelligence capability in December of 1974 – and with it, the ability to mount large-scale strategic deception operations. Redefined and re-envisioned by successive administrations, NIKE W Nike Air Max 90 Running Ez AO1520-800 VINTAGE CORAL Size 6.5counterintelligence had been reduced to little more than a security function until the Clinton Administration partially resurrected it after disastrous and overlapping penetrations of the CIA and the FBI were uncovered in the 1990’s. Expanded and reorganized in the aftermath of 9-11, a National Counterintelligence Executive now exists as a semi-autonomous supervisory agency. And yet despite the many long overdue reforms that have been undertaken since 2001, U.S. counterintelligence remains hobbled by an obtuse and legalistic definition, conceptual confusion,Adidas Tubular Defiant T W Womens BB4234 CWHITE,CWHITE,CWHITE Womens Size 9.5 tangled jurisdictions, and – above all – by institutional timidity. For while offensive counterintelligence operations are now officially recognized, they remain tightly controlled and rarely sanctioned. They are tactical operations, most often mounted in reprisal.
Despite ample modern precedents, strategic deception operations of the sort advocated by Sun Tzu and refined by Angleton remain beyond the pale. This is unfortunate and – for those that seek to limit the suffering caused by armed conflict – deeply disconcerting.NIKE W Dualtone Racer Woven AJ8156-201 MOON PARTICLE/MOON PARTICLE Size 7.5Adidas Ultraboost Uncaged Sneaker White Size 6-9 Womens No NMD Boost Y-3 Ultra
For in the Great Game of Nations, offensive counterintelligence remains the only plausible means for achieving victory without war. For if only in theory, it is the primary offensive instrument of state.
Published by the Center for Intelligence Studies.Nike WMNS AIR MAX 90 SE Oil Green Size 5 6 7 9 Women's Shoes 881105-300Nike Air Jordan XI Low Sneakers Rook To Queen Size 6 7 8 9 Womens Shoes New
1016 K Street NE. Washington, DC. 20002
202 / 399-0292
Copyright 2009. This paper may be reproduced in part or in whole for civic or educational purposes, provided that context is preserved and full attribution is given